Mayo College was founded by the 6th Earl of Mayo, who was the Viceroy of India between 1869 and 1872, so as to impart education of British standards to the leaders of the princely state. The British founded this public school to give education to the Indian elite, particularly the nobles of the Rajputana.
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The main building of the college was designed by Major Mant in the Indo-Saracenic style which was popularised by the State Engineer of Jaipur, Sir Samuel Swinton Jacob. The building which is made up of white marble is a prime example of Indo-Saracenic architecture. The building was constructed in eight years between 1877 and 1885.
The museum located inside the Jhalawar House is home to many antiques and armoury sections. The Coat of Arms of the college has a design made by Lockwood Kipling, the former Principal of the School of Arts, Lahore. He also happens to be the father of the famous writer Rudyard Kipling.